A-level results: Key to results

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The following is the key to reading the A-level and AS-level results published on our websites.

A – art; ac – art and craft; ad – art and design; acc – accounting; afm - applied further maths; ah – ancient history; ahl – ancient history and literature; am – applied maths; app – applied mechanics; arc – archaeology; b – botany; bg – British Government and politics; bi – biology; bn – Bengali; bs – business studies; bz – botany and zoology; ca – classical art; cc – classical civilisation; cft – craft; ch – Chinese; cls – classical studies; cs – computer studies; csc – computer science; com – commercial studies; com st – communication studies; crit - critical thinking; ct – computer technology; cth – Christian theology; cw – creative writing; cy – chemistry; cz – citizenship; dch – Dutch; des tech – design technology; dm – drama; dr – design and realisation; ds – domestic science; dts – drama and theatre studies; e – economics; ec – social/economic history; ecg – economic geography; ed – engineering drawing; edd – engineering drawing and design; elc – electronics; ell – English language and literature; eng – English; eng lit – English literature; ep – economical and political studies; es – engineering science; est – environmental studies; epq – extended project qualification; fd – food technology; ff – fashion and fabrics; fm – further maths; fpu – French for professional use; fr – French; fs – film studies; g – German; gc – general classics; g com – graphical communication; ged – geometrical and engineering drawing; geo – geology; gk – Greek; gpl – general principles of English law; gs – general studies; gy – Geography; ha – history of art; hb – human biology; h(be) – history (British economic); hc – housecraft; he – home economics; hs - health and social care; dhs – double health and social care; ht – home economics and textiles; hy or h – history; i – Italian; it – information technology; jp – Japanese; l – Latin; lp – Latin (prose offered); ls – leisure studies; ltrh – Latin translation and Roman history; lw – law; m – maths; me – maths for education and industry; med – media studies; met – metalwork; mt – music technology; mus – music; nd – needlework and dressmaking; p – physics; pa – principles of accounts; pam – pure and applied maths; pc – physical science; ped – physical education; pf – performance arts; pg – Portugese; ph – photography; phl – philosophy; pl – Polish; pm – pure maths; pmc – pure maths with mechanics; po – political studies; ps – pure maths with statistics; py – physics and maths; psy -psychology; r -Russian; rs – religious studies; s – Spanish; se – spoken English; soc – sociology; son – social biology; sp st – sports studies; sp st2 - sports studies double award; sp st3 - sports studies triple award; sta – statistics; td – technical drawing; tex – textiles; ts – theatre studies; tt – travel and tourism; txd – textile and dress; u – Urdu; ue – use of English; w – woodwork; z – zoology.

(A*) indicates grade A* pass. (A) indicates grade A pass. S indicates special paper. = indicates A/S level pass.

NVQ: D indicates distinction. M indicates merit. P indicates pass.